“Citizens’ Media Meets Big Data: The Emergence Of Data Activism” (Milan & Gutiérrez 2015) was the first study that, in 2015, labelled citizens’ engagement with the data infrastructure “data activism”. Since then, other authors and sites have started to deal with the issue from the same perspective. It was the beginning of an interesting conversation.

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Other studies that specifically mention or use this pioneering study include:

  1. The Datafied Society- Studying Culture through Data  (Schäfer and van Es 2017): Alternative cartographies and bottom-up initiatives that reinstate what’s missing in big data are exemplary for how data-based initiatives can be appropriated for community advocacy, ‘civic action’ (Schäfer 2016), ‘agency’ (Kennedy, Poell & Van Dijck 2015) and ‘data activism’ (Milan & Gutiérrez 2015).
  2. “Technopolitics in the Age of Big Data: The Rise of Proactive Data Activism in Latin America” (Milan and Gutiérrez 2017): “We identify two forms of data activism: proactive data activism, whereby citizens take advantage of the possibilities offered by big data infrastructure for advocacy and social change, and reactive data activism, namely grassroots efforts aimed at resisting massive data collection and protecting users from malicious snooping” (Milan & Gutierrez, 2015).
  3. The Routledge Companion to Media and Activism: “And while critique is necessary, it is not sufficient: ‘Citizen [should] take a critical approach to big data, and appropriate and manipulate data for advocacy and social change” (Milan & Gutierrez, 2015).
  4. Big Data desde el sur: de los medios a las mediaciones, de la dataficación al activismo de datos: “Hace casi treinta años, el comunicólogo Colombiano-Español Jesús Martín-Barbero, nos urgió a trasladarnos ‘de los medios a las mediaciones’, esto es, de los análisis funcionalistas centrados en los medios, hacia la exploración de las prácticas diarias de apropiación de los medios a través de las cuales los actores sociales desarrollan su resistencia frente a la dominación y la hegemonía (1987). Sostenemos que, en el escenario actual, ha llegado la hora de trasladarnos de la dataficación al activismo de datos (Milan & Gutierrez, 2015), para examinar las diversas maneras en las que los ciudadanos y la sociedad civil organizada en el Sur Global se involucra en prácticas de datos horizontales en pro del cambio social, así como en la resistencia a los usos “oscuros” del big data, que incrementan la opresión y la desigualdad.”
  5. The materiality of data transparency and the (re)configuration of environmental activism in the Brazilian Amazon: “The critical literature on the epistemological and political aspects of data has been able to fruitfully highlight the limitations of the mainstream concepts concerning the role of (open) data in society (Milan, 2013; Milan & Gutierrez, 2015; Schrock & Shaffer, 2017).”
  6. Datafication & Discrimination Koen Leurs (Utrecht University) & Tamara Shepherd (University of Calgary): “Alternative cartographies and bottom-up initiatives that reinstate what’s missing in Big Data are exemplary for how data-based initiatives can be appropriated for community advocacy, “civic action” (Schäfer, 2016), “agency” (Kennedy, Poell and Van Dijck, 2015), and “data activism” (Milan & Gutiérrez, 2015).”
  7. ¿Tecnologías para la transformación? Los medios sociales ante el cambio político y social: “En este sentido, la ciudadanía puede empoderarse en las redes digitales, entendiendo este proceso como el desarrollo de la capacidad de participar activamente y controlar su actividad comunicativa, tanto en la producción
    como en la distribución y el consumo (Milan & Gutiérrez, 2015).”
  8. Big Data from the South: From media to mediations, from datafication to data activism: “We argue that in the present scenario it is about time to move from datafication to data activism (Milan & Gutierrez, 2015), and examine the diverse ways through which citizens and the organized civil society in the Global South engage in bottom-up data practices for social change as well as resistance to “dark” uses of big data that increase oppression and inequality.
  9. Postcolonial Mediations: However, this chapter highlights data-based initiatives can be appropriated for community advocacy, “civic action” (Schäfer, 2016), “agency” (Kennedy, Poell and Van Dijck, 2015), and “data activism” (Milan & Gutiérrez, 2015).
  10. Sistema de Información para la incursión al Periodismo de Datos: “Vivimos en una era en la que estamos rodeados de datos, cada segundo generamos datos, como en sensores aéreos, aparatos móviles, lectores de identificación de radio frecuencia, etc. (Milan & Gutiérrez, 2015).”
  11. What does the term data activism refer to, exactly? Is it activism focused on data, or using data for activism? “Data activism can be defined as ‘new social practices rooted in technology and data’, which ‘take a critical approach to big data’ and use digital technology and data politically and proactively to foster social change (Milan and Gutierrez 2015, 125). Proactive data activism is an ‘emerging’ phenomenon in the ‘field of action’ that combines ‘communicative practices’, technology and information ‘at its outermost complexity’ (that is, big data), and ‘collective organising’ (ibid., 133).”
  12. Data Activism in Light of the Public Sphere: “Data activism involves a series of practices ‘at the intersection of the social and the technological dimension of human action,’ aiming at either ‘resisting massive data collection,’ in the case of reactive data activists, or ‘actively pursuing the exploitation of available data for social change,’ in the case of proactive data activists (Milan and Gutiérrez 2015, 127).”

  13. Dataviz: A package of domain-specific visualizations and languages for the Pharo live coding environment: “Dataviz is a companion package for Grafoscopio (Luna Cárdenas 2014) that puts together several examples of Domain Specific Visualizations and Domain Specific Languages (DSV, DSL, respectively) developed with the Roassal agile visualization engine (Bergel 2016) in the fields of data activism (Milan and Gutiérrez 2015), civic hacking (Schrock 2016).”
  14. Tesis de grado en opción al título de Ingeniero Industrial: “Big Data son también los procesos de indexación de lasactividades en internet y los metadatos resultantes de la vigilancia digital de los gobiernos. Finalmente, son el resultado del proceso de “datificación”, es decir, la habilidad de convertir en datos muchos aspectos de la realidad que nunca habían sido cuantificados antes. (Milan and Gutiérrez, 2015).”

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